Professor Tom H Williamson

MD MBChB, FRCS(Glas), FRCOphth

Consultant Ophthalmologist and Vitreoretinal Specialist




Book Chapters

Electronic Book Chapter

Journal Articles

Computer Conference Proceedings

Magazine Articles



  1. Williamson TH, Kinsella,F., Williamson,J. Self assessment in ophthalmology. Singapore: P.G. Publishing; 1990.
  2. Williamson TH. Vitreoretinal Surgery. First ed. Berlin, Germany: Springer; 2008.
  3. Williamson TH. Vitreoretinal Surgery. Second ed. Berlin, Germany: Springer; 2013.
  4. Williamson TH. Intraocular surgery, a basic surgical guide. Springer; 2016.
  5. Williamson TH. Vitreoretinal disorders in primary care. USA: CRC Press, Taylor & Woodrow Group; 2017.

Book Chapters

  1. Williamson TH. Peeling the posterior hyaloid membrane. In: lois N, Wong, D., editor. Complications of vitreoretinal surgery. USA: Lippincott; 2013.
  2. Williamson TH. Vitreous surgery in uveitis and allied disorders. In: Kirchof B, Wong,D., editor. Essentials in ophthalmology. Springer; 2004.
  3. Williamson TH. Vitreoretinal disorders. In: Spalton DJ, editor. Atlas of clinical ophthalmology. Elsevier; 2004.
  4. Williamson TH, Johnstone,R. Retina, part 4. In: Roberson G, editor. Ocular structures and abnormalities: anatomy, examination and treatment. 1999.
  5. Gardner GC, Keating, D.,Williamson, T.H., Elliot, A.T. Detection of diabetic retinopahty using neural network analysis of fundal images. Neural networks and expert sysytems in medicine and health care. University of Plymouth; 1996.
  6. Williamson TH. Colour Doppler imaging of the eye and orbit. In: Kirkness CM, Jay,B., editor. Recent advances in ophthalmology. BMJ publishing; 1995.

Electronic Book Chapter

  1. Williamson TH. Sickle cell retinopathy. In: Damato B, editor. Ophthalmopedia. 2009.

Journal Articles

  1. Steel DH, Donachie PHJ, Aylward GW, Laidlaw DA, Williamson TH, Yorston D, et al. Factors affecting anatomical and visual outcome after macular hole surgery: findings from a large prospective UK cohort. Eye (Lond). 2020. doi: 10.1038/s41433-020-0844-x.
  2. Fajgenbaum MAP, Antonakis S, Williamson TH, Laidlaw DAH. Rate of post operative autofluoresecent macular shift with expanding gas bubble tamponade and no prone posture ambulatory care in patients with macular involved retinal detachment. Ophthalmologica. 2020. doi: 10.1159/000505927.
  3. Ellabban AA, Patil, A.A., Yorston, D., Williamson, T.H., Laidlaw, D.A., Vize, C.J. and Morris, E.P. . Risk of retinal detachment during labour: beliefs versus evidence. The Obstetrician and Gynaecologist. 2020:1-3.
  4. Williamson TH. A reality check on big data. Eye (Lond). 2019. doi: 10.1038/s41433-019-0682-x.
  5. Ho J, Williamson TH, Wong RS, Laidlaw DAH. Beneficial visual outcome of vitrectomy and delamination surgery for tractional complications of diabetic retinopathy in a cohort of black patients. Eye (Lond). 2019;33(12):1884-9. doi: 10.1038/s41433-019-0496-x.
  6. Williamson TH, Guillemaut JY, Hall SK, Hutter JC, Goddard T. THEORETICAL GAS CONCENTRATIONS ACHIEVING 100% FILL OF THE VITREOUS CAVITY IN THE POSTOPERATIVE PERIOD: A Gas Eye Model Study. Retina. 2018;38 Suppl 1:S60-S4. doi: 10.1097/IAE.0000000000001963.
  7. Sallam AB, Donachie PHJ, Yorston D, Steel DHW, Williamson TH, Jackson TL, et al. ROYAL COLLEGE OF OPHTHALMOLOGISTS’ NATIONAL DATABASE STUDY OF VITREORETINAL SURGERY: Report 7, Intersurgeon Variations in Primary Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Failure. Retina. 2018;38(2):334-42. doi: 10.1097/IAE.0000000000001538.
  8. Neffendorf JE, Gupta B, Williamson TH. THE ROLE OF INTRAOCULAR GAS TAMPONADE IN RHEGMATOGENOUS RETINAL DETACHMENT: A Synthesis of the Literature. Retina. 2018;38 Suppl 1:S65-S72. doi: 10.1097/IAE.0000000000002015.
  9. Natali D, Repetto, R., Tweedy, J.H., Williamson, T.H., Pralits, J.O. A simple mathematical model of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Journal of Fluids and Structures 2018;82:245-57.
  10. Laviers H, Li JO, Grabowska A, Charles SJ, Charteris D, Haynes RJ, et al. The management of macular hole retinal detachment and macular retinoschisis in pathological myopia; a UK collaborative study. Eye (Lond). 2018;32(11):1743-51. doi: 10.1038/s41433-018-0166-4.
  11. Gupta B, Neffendorf JE, Williamson TH. Trends and emerging patterns of practice in vitreoretinal surgery. Acta Ophthalmol. 2018;96(7):e889-e90. doi: 10.1111/aos.13102.
  12. Fajgenbaum MAP, Wong RS, Laidlaw DAH, Williamson TH. Vitreoretinal surgery on the fellow eye: A retrospective analysis of 18 years of surgical data from a tertiary center in England. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2018;66(5):681-6. doi: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_1176_17.
  13. Fajgenbaum MAP, Neffendorf JE, Wong RS, Laidlaw DAH, Williamson TH. INTRAOPERATIVE AND POSTOPERATIVE COMPLICATIONS IN PHACOVITRECTOMY FOR EPIRETINAL MEMBRANE AND MACULAR HOLE: A Clinical Audit of 1,000 Consecutive Eyes. Retina. 2018;38(9):1865-72. doi: 10.1097/IAE.0000000000002034.
  14. Clarke B, Williamson TH, Gini G, Gupta B. Management of bacterial postoperative endophthalmitis and the role of vitrectomy. Surv Ophthalmol. 2018;63(5):677-93. doi: 10.1016/j.survophthal.2018.02.003.
  15. Sheldon K. Hall, Thomas H. Williamson, Jean-Yves Guillemaut, Tony Goddard, Andrew P. Baumann, Hutter JC. Modeling the dynamics of tamponade multicomponent gases during retina reattachment surgery. AICHe Journal. 2017;epub.
  16. Neffendorf JE, Gupta B, Williamson TH. Intraoperative complications of patients undergoing small-gauge and 20-gauge vitrectomy: a database study of 4,274 procedures. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2017;27(2):226-30. doi: 10.5301/ejo.5000856.
  17. Kontos A, Williamson TH. Rate and risk factors for the conversion of fovea-on to fovea-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment while awaiting surgery. Br J Ophthalmol. 2017;101(8):1011-5. doi: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2016-309178.
  18. Kontos A, Tee J, Stuart A, Shalchi Z, Williamson TH. Duration of intraocular gases following vitreoretinal surgery. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2017;255(2):231-6. doi: 10.1007/s00417-016-3438-3.
  19. Gupta B, Neffendorf JE, Wong R, Laidlaw DAH, Williamson TH. Ethnic variation in vitreoretinal surgery: differences in clinical presentation and outcome. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2017;27(3):367-71. doi: 10.5301/ejo.5000894.
  20. Fajgenbaum MAPR, J.; Williamson, T.H. . Refractive Outcomes Using the Lenstar Optical Low Coherence Reflectometry Bio- meter in Phacovitrectomy for Epiretrinal Membranes and Macular Holes. Open Journal of Ophthalmology. 2017;7:216-24.
  21. Wong R, De Luca M, Shunmugam M, Williamson T, Laidlaw A, Vaccaro V. Visual outcome after removal of silicone oil in patients undergoing retinectomy for complex retinal detachment. Int J Ophthalmol. 2016;9(1):108-10. doi: 10.18240/ijo.2016.01.18.
  22. Steel DH, Williamson TH, Laidlaw DA, Sharma P, Matthews C, Rees J, et al. Extent and Location of Intraretinal and Subretinal Fluid as Prognostic Factors for the Outcome of Patients with Optic Disk Pit Maculopathy. Retina. 2016;36(1):110-8. doi: 10.1097/IAE.0000000000000658.
  23. Sallam AA, Donachie PH, Williamson TH, Sparrow JM, Johnston RL. The Royal College of Ophthalmologists’ National Ophthalmology Database Study of vitreoretinal surgery: report 5, anaesthetic techniques. Br J Ophthalmol. 2016;100(2):246-52. doi: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2014-306467.
  24. Saidkasimova S, Shalchi Z, Mahroo OA, Shunmugam M, Laidlaw DA, Williamson TH, et al. Risk factors for visual impairment in patients with sickle cell disease in London. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2016;26(5):431-5. doi: 10.5301/ejo.5000767.
  25. Rodrigues IA, Lee EJ, Williamson TH. Measurement of Retinal Displacement and Metamorphopsia after Epiretinal Membrane or Macular Hole Surgery. Retina. 2016;36(4):695-702. doi: 10.1097/IAE.0000000000000768.
  26. Jackson TL, Johnston RL, Donachie PH, Williamson TH, Sparrow JM, Steel DH. The Royal College of Ophthalmologists’ National Ophthalmology Database Study of Vitreoretinal Surgery: Report 6, Diabetic Vitrectomy. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2016;134(1):79-85; quiz 120. doi: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2015.4587.
  27. Elhousseini Z, Lee E, Williamson TH. Incidence of Lens Touch during Pars Plana Vitrectomy and Outcomes from Subsequent Cataract Surgery. Retina. 2016;36(4):825-9. doi: 10.1097/IAE.0000000000000779.
  28. Welikala RA, Fraz MM, Dehmeshki J, Hoppe A, Tah V, Mann S, et al. Genetic algorithm based feature selection combined with dual classification for the automated detection of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Comput Med Imaging Graph. 2015;43:64-77. doi: 10.1016/j.compmedimag.2015.03.003.
  29. Stuart A.J. KA, Williamson T.H. . Managing Cases of Dislocated Intraocular Lenses; a Retrospective Review of Cases over a 13 Year Period. . Adv Ophthalmol Vis Syst 2015;3(3):1-4.
  30. Sivaprasad S AW, Williamson T, Dodson P, Talks J, Talks K, Bhan K, Hykin P. . The Royal College Of Ophthalmologists Guidelines on retinal vein occlusions: executive summary. Eye. 2015;29:1633-8
  31. Shalchi Z, Mahroo OA, Shunmugam M, Mohamed M, Sullivan PM, Williamson TH. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography findings in long-term silicone oil-related visual loss. Retina. 2015;35(3):555-63. doi: 10.1097/IAE.0000000000000325.
  32. RA Welikala MF, TH Williamson, SA Barman The automated detection of proliferative diabetic retinopathy using dual ensemble classification International Journal of Diagnostic Imaging. 2015;2:72.
  33. R.A. Welikala MMF, J. Dehmeshki, A. Hoppe, V. Tah, S. Mann, T.H. Williamson, S.A. Barman,. Genetic Algorithm Based Feature Selection Combined with Dual Classification for the Automated Detection of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy, . Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics. 2015;43:64-77.
  34. Mahroo OA, Mitry D, Williamson TH, Shepherd A, Charteris DG, Hamilton RD. Exploring Sex and Laterality Imbalances in Patients Undergoing Laser Retinopexy. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2015;133(11):1334-6. doi: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2015.2731.
  35. Jackson TL, Donachie PH, Williamson TH, Sparrow JM, Johnston RL. THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF OPHTHALMOLOGISTS’ NATIONAL OPHTHALMOLOGY DATABASE STUDY OF VITREORETINAL SURGERY: Report 4, Epiretinal Membrane. Retina. 2015;35(8):1615-21. doi: 10.1097/IAE.0000000000000523.
  36. Williamson TH, Lee EJ, Shunmugam M. Characteristics of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and their relationship to success rates of surgery. Retina. 2014;34(7):1421-7. doi: 10.1097/IAE.0000000000000094.
  37. Williamson TH, Lee E. Idiopathic macular hole: analysis of visual outcomes and the use of indocyanine green or brilliant blue for internal limiting membrane peel. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2014;252(3):395-400. doi: 10.1007/s00417-013-2477-2.
  38. Welikala RA DJ, Hoppe A, Tah V, Mann S, Williamson TH, Barman SA. . Automated detection of proliferative diabetic retinopathy using a modified line operator and dual classification. . Computer methods and programs in biomedicine. 2014:28-33.
  39. Welikala RA, Dehmeshki J, Hoppe A, Tah V, Mann S, Williamson TH, et al. Automated detection of proliferative diabetic retinopathy using a modified line operator and dual classification. Computer methods and programs in biomedicine. 2014;114(3):247-61. doi: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2014.02.010.
  40. Shunmugam M, Shah AN, Hysi PG, Williamson TH. The pattern and distribution of retinal breaks in eyes with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Am J Ophthalmol. 2014;157(1):221-6 e1. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2013.09.011.
  41. Qiang Kwong T, Shunmugam M, Williamson TH. Characteristics of rhegmatogenous retinal detachments secondary to retinal dialyses. Can J Ophthalmol. 2014;49(2):196-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jcjo.2013.12.013.
  42. Naj AC, Jun G, Reitz C, Kunkle BW, Perry W, Park YS, et al. Effects of multiple genetic loci on age at onset in late-onset Alzheimer disease: a genome-wide association study. JAMA Neurol. 2014;71(11):1394-404. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2014.1491.
  43. Lee E, El Housseini Z, Steel DH, Williamson TH. An analysis of the outcomes for patients with failed primary vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2014;252(11):1711-6. doi: 10.1007/s00417-014-2610-x.
  44. Dawson SR, Shunmugam M, Williamson TH. Visual acuity outcomes following surgery for idiopathic epiretinal membrane: an analysis of data from 2001 to 2011. Eye (Lond). 2014;28(2):219-24. doi: 10.1038/eye.2013.253.
  45. Chandra A, Xing W, Kadhim MR, Williamson TH. Suprachoroidal hemorrhage in pars plana vitrectomy: risk factors and outcomes over 10 years. Ophthalmology. 2014;121(1):311-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2013.06.021.
  46. Williamson TH, Shunmugam M, Rodrigues I, Dogramaci M, Lee E. Characteristics of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and their relationship to visual outcome. Eye (Lond). 2013;27(9):1063-9. doi: 10.1038/eye.2013.136.
  47. Ugarte M, Shunmugam M, Laidlaw DA, Williamson TH. Morphision: A method for subjective evaluation of metamorphopsia in patients with unilateral macular pathology (i.e., full thickness macular hole and epiretinal membrane). Indian J Ophthalmol. 2013.
  48. Shunmugam M, Hugkulstone CE, Wong R, Williamson TH. Consecutive toxic anterior segment syndrome in combined phaco-vitrectomy. Int Ophthalmol. 2013;33(3):289-90. doi: 10.1007/s10792-012-9691-5.
  49. Lee E, Williamson TH, Hysi P, Shunmugam M, Dogramaci M, Wong R, et al. Macular displacement following rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair. Br J Ophthalmol. 2013;97(10):1297-302. doi: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2013-303637.
  50. Dogramaci M, Williamson TH. Dynamics of epiretinal membrane removal off the retinal surface: a computer simulation project. Br J Ophthalmol. 2013;97(9):1202-7. doi: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2013-303598.
  51. Dogramaci M, Williams K, Lee E, Williamson TH. Foveal light exposure is increased at the time of removal of silicone oil with the potential for phototoxicity. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2013;251(1):35-9. doi: 10.1007/s00417-012-2033-5.
  52. Casswell EJ, Shunmugam M, Spalton DJ, Williamson TH. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography demonstrates interconnected orbital cyst and chorioretinal coloboma in an adult. Retin Cases Brief Rep. 2013;7(4):310-2. doi: 10.1097/ICB.0b013e31828ef060.
  53. Williams KM, Dogramaci M, Williamson TH. Retrospective study of rhegmatogenous retinal detachments secondary to round retinal holes. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2012;22(4):635-40. doi: 1412003C-7A9B-418C-8E9E-B1A0C00011F6 [pii]10.5301/ejo.5000080.
  54. Mahroo OA, Hammond CJ, Williamson TH. Choice of analytic approach for eye-specific outcomes: one eye or two? Am J Ophthalmol. 2012;153(4):781-2; author reply 2. doi: S0002-9394(12)00037-2 [pii]10.1016/j.ajo.2012.01.004.
  55. Mahroo OA, Dybowski R, Wong R, Williamson TH. Characteristics of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in pseudophakic and phakic eyes. Eye (Lond). 2012;26(8):1114-21. doi: eye2012112 [pii]10.1038/eye.2012.112.
  56. Lee EJ, Dogramaci M, Williamson TH. Does unintentional macular translocation after retinal detachment repair influence visual outcome? Comment. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 2012;40(1):e126. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-9071.2011.02723.x.
  57. Lee E, Dogramaci M, Williamson T. Displacement of the retina. Ophthalmology. 2012;119(1):206 e1; author reply -7. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2011.10.017.
  58. Gupta B, Wong R, Sivaprasad S, Williamson TH. Surgical and visual outcome following 20-gauge vitrectomy in proliferative diabetic retinopathy over a 10-year period, evidence for change in practice. Eye (Lond). 2012;26(4):576-82. doi: eye2011348 [pii]10.1038/eye.2011.348.
  59. Gupta B, Sivaprasad S, Wong R, Laidlaw A, Jackson TL, McHugh D, et al. Visual and anatomical outcomes following vitrectomy for complications of diabetic retinopathy: the DRIVE UK study. Eye (Lond). 2012;26(4):510-6. doi: eye2011321 [pii]10.1038/eye.2011.321.
  60. Dogramaci M, Lee EJ, Williamson TH. The incidence and the risk factors for iatrogenic retinal breaks during pars plana vitrectomy. Eye (Lond). 2012;26(5):718-22. doi: eye201218 [pii]10.1038/eye.2012.18.
  61. Wong R, Gupta B, Williamson TH, Laidlaw DA. Day 1 postoperative intraocular pressure spike in vitreoretinal surgery (VDOP1). Acta Ophthalmol. 2011;89(4):365-8. doi: AOS1703 [pii]10.1111/j.1755-3768.2009.01703.x.
  62. Wong R, Gupta B, Mokete B, Williamson TH, Laidlaw DA. Idiopathic bilateral retinal dialyses complicated by posterior retinal tear after blunt trauma. Retin Cases Brief Rep. 2011;5(2):153-6. doi: 10.1097/ICB.0b013e3181cd1d62.
  63. Williams KM, Watt L, Williamson TH. Acute symptomatic posterior vitreous detachment and delayed retinal breaks. Acta Ophthalmol. 2011;89(1):e100-1. doi: AOS1973 [pii]10.1111/j.1755-3768.2010.01973.x.
  64. Shunmugam M, Shunmugam S, Williamson TH, Laidlaw DA. Air-gas exchange reevaluated: clinically important results of a computer simulation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52(11):8262-5. doi: iovs.11-8258 [pii]10.1167/iovs.11-8258.
  65. Duanggate C, Uyyanonvara B, Makhanov SS, Barman S, Williamson T. Parameter-free optic disc detection. Comput Med Imaging Graph. 2011;35(1):51-63. doi: S0895-6111(10)00090-X [pii]10.1016/j.compmedimag.2010.09.004.
  66. Chandra A, Jazayeri F, Williamson TH. Warfarin in vitreoretinal surgery: a case controlled series. Br J Ophthalmol. 2011;95(7):976-8. doi: bjo.2010.187526 [pii]10.1136/bjo.2010.187526.
  67. Cattleya Duanggate; Bunyarit Uyyanonvara SSM, Sarah Barman, Tom  H Williamson, . Object Detection with Feature Stability over Scale Space, . Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation. 2011;22(4):345-52.
  68. Cattleya Duanggate BU, Stanislav S. Makhanov, Sarah Barman, Tom Williamson, . Parameter-free optic disc detection, Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics, . Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics. 2011;35(1):51-63.
  69. Cattleya Duanggate BU, Stanislav S. Makhanov, Sarah Barman, Tom Williamson, . Object detection with feature stability over scale space. Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation. 2011;22(4):345-52.
  70. Wong R, Pavesio CE, Laidlaw DA, Williamson TH, Graham EM, Stanford MR. Acute retinal necrosis: the effects of intravitreal foscarnet and virus type on outcome. Ophthalmology. 2010;117(3):556-60. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2009.08.003.
  71. Williamson TH, Gupta B. Planned delayed relaxing retinotomy for proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging. 2010;41(1):31-4. doi: 10.3928/15428877-20091230-06.
  72. Ugarte M, Williamson TH. “Metamorphopsia” assessment. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51(12):6894-5; author reply 5. doi: 10.1167/iovs.10-5483.
  73. Goodfellow JF, Mokete B, Williamson TH. Discriminate characteristics of photopsia in posterior vitreous detachment, retinal tears and retinal detachment. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2010;30(1):20-3. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-1313.2009.00685.x.
  74. Goodfellow JF, Chu, C., Williamson, T.H. Photopsia – a Symptom of Diverse Aetiologies. CML Ophthalmology. 2010.
  75. Williamson TH, Watt L, Mokete B. Black or negative flashes in posterior vitreous detachment a transient symptom before lightning flashes commence. Eye (Lond). 2009;23(6):1477. doi: 10.1038/eye.2008.209.
  76. Williamson TH, Rajput R, Laidlaw DA, Mokete B. Vitreoretinal management of the complications of sickle cell retinopathy by observation or pars plana vitrectomy. Eye. 2009;23(6):1314-20. doi: eye2008296 [pii]10.1038/eye.2008.296.
  77. Williamson TH, Grewal J, Gupta B, Mokete B, Lim M, Fry CH. Measurement of PO2 during vitrectomy for central retinal vein occlusion, a pilot study. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2009;247(8):1019-23. doi: 10.1007/s00417-009-1072-z.
  78. Osuobeni EP, Okpala I, Williamson TH, Thomas P. Height, weight, body mass index and ocular biometry in patients with sickle cell disease. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2009;29(2):189-98. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-1313.2008.00622.x.
  79. Mokete B, Williamson TH. Scleral buckling combined with vitrectomy for the management of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment associated with inferior retinal breaks. Eye (Lond). 2009;23(5):1233; author reply -4. doi: eye2008171 [pii]10.1038/eye.2008.171.
  80. Gupta B, Laidlaw DA, Williamson TH, Shah SP, Wong R, Wren S. Predicting visual success in macular hole surgery. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009;93(11):1488-91. doi: bjo.2008.153189 [pii]10.1136/bjo.2008.153189.
  81. Gupta B, Grewal J, Adewoyin T, Pelosini L, Williamson TH. Diurnal variation of macular oedema in CRVO: prospective study. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2009;247(5):593-6. doi: 10.1007/s00417-008-1011-4.
  82. Williamson TH, Laidlaw DA, Doyle E. Aggregations of retinal pigment epithelial cells on inferior retinal blood vessels, a clinical sign of early proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2008;36(8):744-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-9071.2008.01897.x.
  83. Sopharak A UB, Barman S, Williamson TH. . Automatic detection of diabetic retinopathy exudates from non-dilated retinal images using mathematical morphology methods. Comput Med Imaging Graph. 2008;32(8):720-7.
  84. Jackson TL, Hussain A, Morley AM, Sullivan PM, Hodgetts A, El-Osta A, et al. Scleral hydraulic conductivity and macromolecular diffusion in patients with uveal effusion syndrome. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49(11):5033-40. doi: iovs.08-1980 [pii]10.1167/iovs.08-1980.
  85. Gupta B, Mokete B, Laidlaw DA, Williamson TH. Severe folding of the inferior retina after relaxing retinectomy for proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Eye. 2008. doi: eye2008220 [pii]10.1038/eye.2008.220.
  86. Williamson TH. A “throttle” mechanism in the central retinal vein in the region of the lamina cribrosa. Br J Ophthalmol. 2007;91(9):1190-3. doi: bjo.2006.102798 [pii]10.1136/bjo.2006.102798.
  87. Ugarte M WT. Intravitreal steroids: from mechanisms to clinical practice. Current Medical Literature Ophthalmology. 2007:1-5.
  88. Herbert EN, Williamson TH. Combined removal of silicone oil plus internal search (ROSO-plus) following retinal detachment surgery. Eye. 2007;21(7):925-9. doi: 6702341 [pii]10.1038/sj.eye.6702341.
  89. Doyle E, Herbert EN, Bunce C, Williamson TH, Laidlaw DA. How effective is macula-off retinal detachment surgery. Might good outcome be predicted? Eye. 2007;21(4):534-40. doi: 6702260 [pii]10.1038/sj.eye.6702260.
  90. Ugarte M WT. Autofluorescence and retinal pigment epithelial atrophy after subretinal hemorrhage. Retina 2006;26(1):121.
  91. Ugarte M, Williamson TH. Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) pigmentation and thickening in the central macula after macular edema resolution in central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Retina. 2006;26(1):121; author reply -2. doi: 10.1097/00006982-200601000-00026.
  92. Ugarte M, Williamson TH. Horizontal and vertical micropsia following macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal-detachment surgical repair. Graefes ArchClinExpOphthalmol. 2006;244(11):1545-8.
  93. Herbert EN, Mokete B, Williamson TH, Laidlaw DA. Haemorrhagic vitreoretinal complications associated with combined antiplatelet agents. BrJOphthalmol. 2006;90(9):1209-10.
  94. Herbert EN, Habib M, Steel D, Williamson TH. Central scotoma associated with intraocular silicone oil tamponade develops before oil removal. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2006;244(2):248-52. doi: 10.1007/s00417-005-0076-6.
  95. Grigoropoulos VG, Williamson TH, Kirkby GR, Laidlaw DA. Outcomes of surgery for progressive symptomatic retinal detachment complicating retinoschisis. Retina. 2006;26(1):37-43. doi: 00006982-200601000-00007 [pii].
  96. Williamson TH, O’Donnell A. Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for cystoid macular edema in nonischemic central retinal vein occlusion. AmJOphthalmol. 2005;139(5):860-6.
  97. Ugarte M, Williamson TH. Aniseikonia associated with epiretinal membranes. Br J Ophthalmol. 2005;89(12):1576-80. doi: 10.1136/bjo.2005.077164.
  98. Sivagnanavel V, Ortiz-Hurtado A, Williamson TH. Diode laser trans-scleral cyclophotocoagulation in the management of glaucoma in patients with long-term intravitreal silicone oil. Eye (Lond). 2005;19(3):253-7. doi: 10.1038/sj.eye.6701492.
  99. Lewis K, Herbert EN, Williamson TH. Severe ocular involvement in disseminated intravascular coagulation complicating meningococcaemia. Graefes ArchClinExpOphthalmol. 2005;243(10):1069-70.
  100. Jaycock PD, Bunce C, Xing W, Thomas D, Poon W, Gazzard G, et al. Outcomes of macular hole surgery: implications for surgical management and clinical governance. Eye (Lond). 2005;19(8):879-84. doi: 10.1038/sj.eye.6701679.
  101. Herbert EN, Williamson TH, Laidlaw DA. Management of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in pregnancy. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2005;33(5):554-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-9071.2005.01086.x.
  102. Herbert EN, Liew SH, Williamson TH. Visual loss after silicone oil removal. BrJOphthalmol. 2005;89(12):1667-8.
  103. Herbert EN, Laidlaw DA, Williamson TH, Habib M, Steel D. Loss of vision once silicone oil has been removed. Retina. 2005;25(6):808-9.
  104. Doyle E WT. Optical coherence tomography: current and future applications. CML Ophthalmology. 2005;15(3):53-6.
  105. Antcliff RJ, Mayer EJ, Williamson TH, Shilling JS. Early chorioretinal anastomosis in non-ischaemic CRVO: a randomised trial. Br J Ophthalmol. 2005;89(6):780-1. doi: 10.1136/bjo.2004.062539.
  106. Angunawela RI, Williamson TH, Khan MA, Chong V. Choroidal translocation with a pedicle following excision of a type 1 choroidal neovascular membrane. BrJOphthalmol. 2005;89(3):386.
  107. Angunawela RI, Heatley CJ, Williamson TH, Spalton DJ, Graham EM, Antcliffe RJ, et al. Intravitreal triamcinalone acetonide for refractory uveitic cystoid macular oedema: longterm management and outcome. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2005;83(5):595-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0420.2005.00438.x.
  108. Williamson TH. New methods in the management of retinal vein occlusion. CME Journal. 2004;7(2):2.
  109. Usher D, Dumskyj M, Himaga M, Williamson TH, Nussey S, Boyce J. Automated detection of diabetic retinopathy in digital retinal images: a tool for diabetic retinopathy screening. Diabet Med. 2004;21(1):84-90. doi: 10.1046/j.1464-5491.2003.01085.x.
  110. Sharma A, Grigoropoulos V, Williamson TH. Management of primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment with inferior breaks. BrJOphthalmol. 2004;88(11):1372-5.
  111. Jaycock PD, Poon W, Wigley F, Williamson J, Williamson TH. Three cases of intraocular foreign bodies as a result of walking or running along roadways. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004;137(3):585-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2003.08.040.
  112. Herbert EN WT. Acute choroidal ischaemia. CML Ophthalmology. 2004;14:77-80.
  113. Balaggan KS, Dong B, Tanner V, Poon WK, Williamson TH. Unsutured posterior chamber lens implantation in eyes requiring lens extraction at the time of pars plana vitrectomy with silicone oil tamponade. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2004;30(1):161-7. doi: 10.1016/S0886-3350(03)00650-3.
  114. Williamson TH, Poon W, Whitefield L, Strothidis N, Jaycock P. A pilot study of pars plana vitrectomy, intraocular gas, and radial neurotomy in ischaemic central retinal vein occlusion. BrJOphthalmol. 2003;87(9):1126-9.
  115. Narendran N, Williamson TH. The effects of aspirin and warfarin therapy on haemorrhage in vitreoretinal surgery. Acta OphthalmolScand. 2003;81(1):38-40.
  116. Kamaljit S, Balaggan W, Williamson TH. Preservation of anterior capsule. Ophthalmology. 2003;110(6):1268-9.
  117. Jackson TL, Hillenkamp J, Williamson TH, Clarke KW, Almubarak AI, Marshall J. An experimental model of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: surgical results and glial cell response. Invest OphthalmolVisSci. 2003;44(9):4026-34.
  118. Chak M, Williamson TH. Spontaneous suprachoroidal haemorrhage associated with high myopia and aspirin. Eye (Lond). 2003;17(4):525-7. doi: 10.1038/sj.eye.6700388.
  119. Balaggan KS, Poon WK, Williamson TH. Preservation of anterior capsule. Ophthalmology. 2003;110(4):631-2.
  120. WKM Poon MCTW. The role of vitreous surgery in noninfectious uveitis. CME Journal Ophthalmology. 2002;6:6-9.
  121. Sinthanayothin C, Boyce JF, Williamson TH, Cook HL, Mensah E, Lal S, et al. Automated detection of diabetic retinopathy on digital fundus images. DiabetMed. 2002;19(2):105-12.
  122. Ismail R, Tanner V, Williamson TH. Optical coherence tomography imaging of severe commotio retinae and associated macular hole. BrJOphthalmol. 2002;86(4):473-4.
  123. Tanner V, Minihan M, Williamson TH. Management of inferior retinal breaks during pars plana vitrectomy for retinal detachment. BrJOphthalmol. 2001;85(4):480-2.
  124. Tanner V, Chauhan DS, Jackson TL, Williamson TH. Optical coherence tomography of the vitreoretinal interface in macular hole formation. BrJOphthalmol. 2001;85(9):1092-7.
  125. Minihan M, Tanner V, Williamson TH. Primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: 20 years of change. BrJOphthalmol. 2001;85(5):546-8.
  126. Jackson TL, Thiagarajan M, Murthy R, Snead MP, Wong D, Williamson TH. Pupil block glaucoma in phakic and pseudophakic patients after vitrectomy with silicone oil injection. AmJOphthalmol. 2001;132(3):414-6.
  127. Jackson TL, Larsson J, Tanner V, Williamson TH. Combined Phaco-Emulsification Cataract Extraction and Pars plana Vitrectomy without Intra-Ocular Lens Implantation. Ophthalmologica. 2001;215(4):271-5.
  128. Williamson JC, Virata SR, Raasch RH, Kylstra JA. Oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus endophthalmitis after ganciclovir intraocular implant. AmJOphthalmol. 2000;129(4):554-5.
  129. Tanner V, Williamson TH. Watzke-Allen slit beam test in macular holes confirmed by optical coherence tomography. ArchOphthalmol. 2000;118(8):1059-63.
  130. Tanner V, Harle D, Tan J, Foote B, Williamson TH, Chignell AH. Acute posterior vitreous detachment: the predictive value of vitreous pigment and symptomatology. BrJOphthalmol. 2000;84(11):1264-8.
  131. Newsom RS, Williamson TH. Globe perforation with frameless spectacles. BrJOphthalmol. 2000;84(6):668-9.
  132. Newsom RS, Sinthanayothin C, Boyce J, Casswell AG, Williamson TH. Clinical evaluation of ‘local contrast enhancement’ for oral fluorescein angiograms. Eye. 2000;14 ( Pt 3A):318-23.
  133. Minihan M, Williamson TH. Ocular explosions from periocular anesthetic injections. Ophthalmology. 2000;107(11):1965.
  134. Jackson T, Tanner,V., Williamson,T.H. Modified sutureless sclerotomies in pars plana vitrectomy. Am J Ophthalmol. 2000;129(1):116-7. doi: 10.1016/s0002-9394(99)00377-3.
  135. Chauhan DS, Antcliff RJ, Rai PA, Williamson TH, Marshall J. Papillofoveal traction in macular hole formation: the role of optical coherence tomography. ArchOphthalmol. 2000;118(1):32-8.
  136. Sinthanayothin C, Boyce JF, Cook HL, Williamson TH. Automated localisation of the optic disc, fovea, and retinal blood vessels from digital colour fundus images. BrJOphthalmol. 1999;83(8):902-10.
  137. Jackson TL, Williamson TH. Amikacin retinal toxicity. BrJOphthalmol. 1999;83(10):1199-200.
  138. Gauntt CD, Williamson TH, Sanders MD. Relationship of the distal optic nerve sheath to the circle of Zinn. Graefes ArchClinExpOphthalmol. 1999;237(8):642-7.
  139. Williamson TH, Keating D. Telemedicine and computers in diabetic retinopathy screening. BrJOphthalmol. 1998;82(1):5-6.
  140. Pear SM, Goldsmith DL, Williamson TH, Mandel D, Sethi GK, Arzouman DA, et al. Identification and voluntary reduction of vancomycin use for perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis during coronary artery bypass graft surgery. InfectControl HospEpidemiol. 1998;19(7):513-5.
  141. Bowman RJ, Williamson TH, Andrews RG, Aitchison TC, Dutton GN. An inner city preschool visual screening programme: long-term visual results. BrJOphthalmol. 1998;82(5):543-8.
  142. Williamson TH, Keating D, Bradnam M. Electroretinography of central retinal vein occlusion under scotopic and photopic conditions: what to measure? Acta OphthalmolScand. 1997;75(1):48-53.
  143. Williamson TH. Central retinal vein occlusion: what’s the story? BrJOphthalmol. 1997;81(8):698-704.
  144. Limb AS, Miller K, Chignell AH, Williamson TH, Hollifield RD, Dumonde DC. Metalloproteinases and TIMP-1 in proliferative vitreoretinopathy. BiochemSocTrans. 1997;25(2):234S.
  145. Williamson TH, Rumley A, Lowe GD. Blood viscosity, coagulation, and activated protein C resistance in central retinal vein occlusion: a population controlled study. BrJOphthalmol. 1996;80(3):203-8.
  146. Williamson TH, Harris A. Color Doppler ultrasound imaging of the eye and orbit. SurvOphthalmol. 1996;40(4):255-67.
  147. Parks S, Keating D, Williamson TH, Evans AL, Elliott AT, Jay JL. Functional imaging of the retina using the multifocal electroretinograph: a control study. BrJOphthalmol. 1996;80(9):831-4.
  148. Parks S, Keating D, Evans AL, Williamson TH, Jay JL, Elliott AT. Comparison of repeatability of the multifocal electroretinogram and Humphrey perimeter. DocOphthalmol. 1996;92(4):281-9.
  149. Keating D, Parks S, Evans AL, Williamson TH, Elliott AT, Jay JL. The effect of filter bandwidth on the multifocal electroretinogram. DocOphthalmol. 1996;92(4):291-300.
  150. Ghanchi FD, Williamson TH, Lim CS, Butt Z, Baxter GM, McKillop G, et al. Colour Doppler imaging in giant cell (temporal) arteritis: serial examination and comparison with non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy. Eye. 1996;10 ( Pt 4):459-64.
  151. Gardner GG, Keating D, Williamson TH, Elliott AT. Automatic detection of diabetic retinopathy using an artificial neural network: a screening tool. BrJOphthalmol. 1996;80(11):940-4.
  152. Fridkin SK, Pear SM, Williamson TH, Galgiani JN, Jarvis WR. The role of understaffing in central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections. InfectControl HospEpidemiol. 1996;17(3):150-8.
  153. Baxter GM, Williamson TH. The value of serial Doppler imaging in central retinal vein occlusion: correlation with visual recovery. ClinRadiol. 1996;51(6):411-4.
  154. Williamson TH, Lowe GD, Baxter GM. Influence of age, systemic blood pressure, smoking, and blood viscosity on orbital blood velocities. BrJOphthalmol. 1995;79(1):17-22.
  155. Williamson TH, Baxter GM, Pyott A, Wykes W, Dutton GN. A comparison of colour Doppler imaging of orbital vessels and other methods of blood flow assessment. Graefes ArchClinExpOphthalmol. 1995;233(2):80-4.
  156. Williamson TH, Andrews R, Dutton GN, Murray G, Graham N. Assessment of an inner city visual screening programme for preschool children. BrJOphthalmol. 1995;79(12):1068-73.
  157. S. Parks DK, T.H. Williamson, A.L. Evans, A.T. Elliott, J.L. Jay. The response topography of ERG b-wave amplitude densities with eccentricity using the m-sequence-stimulation-technique. . Vision Research 1995;1:232.
  158. Ramsay A, Williamson TH, Parks S, Keating D. Crossed polarising filters to measure relative afferent pupillary defects: reproducibility, correlation with neutral density filters and use in central retinal vein occlusion. Eye. 1995;9 ( Pt 5):624-8.
  159. Harris A, Williamson TH, Martin B, Shoemaker JA, Sergott RC, Spaeth GL, et al. Test/Retest reproducibility of color Doppler imaging assessment of blood flow velocity in orbital vessels. J Glaucoma. 1995;4(4):281-6.
  160. Baxter GM, Williamson TH. Color Doppler imaging of the eye: normal ranges, reproducibility, and observer variation. JUltrasound Med. 1995;14(2):91-6.
  161. Williamson TH, Harris A. Ocular blood flow measurement. BrJOphthalmol. 1994;78(12):939-45.
  162. Williamson TH, Baxter GM. Orbital colour Doppler imaging. Eye. 1994;8 ( Pt 1):147-8.
  163. Williamson TH, Baxter GM. Central retinal vein occlusion, an investigation by color Doppler imaging. Blood velocity characteristics and prediction of iris neovascularization. Ophthalmology. 1994;101(8):1362-72.
  164. Williamson TH, Barr DB, Baxter GM. Understanding of the retinal circulation provided by an anomalous retinal vein. BrJOphthalmol. 1994;78(10):798-9.
  165. Williamson TH. What is the use of ocular blood flow measurement? BrJOphthalmol. 1994;78(5):326.
  166. Pear SM, Williamson TH, Bettin KM, Gerding DN, Galgiani JN. Decrease in nosocomial Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea by restricting clindamycin use. AnnInternMed. 1994;120(4):272-7.
  167. Baxter GM, Williamson TH. Colour flow imaging of the orbit–concept or diagnostic tool? ClinRadiol. 1994;49(12):845-6.
  168. Williamson TH, Baxter GM, Dutton GN. Colour Doppler velocimetry of the arterial vasculature of the optic nerve head and orbit. Eye. 1993;7 ( Pt 1):74-9.
  169. Williamson TH, Baxter GM, Dutton GN. Color Doppler velocimetry of the optic nerve head in arterial occlusion. Ophthalmology. 1993;100(3):312-7.
  170. Taylor AW, Sehu W, Williamson TH, Lee WR. Morphometric assessment of the central retinal artery and vein in the optic nerve head. CanJOphthalmol. 1993;28(7):320-4.
  171. Konstas AG, Williamson TH. Co-existence of exfoliation syndrome, previous iris surgery, and heterochromia. Acta Ophthalmol(Copenh). 1993;71(6):850-2.
  172. Baxter GM, Williamson TH. Color Doppler flow imaging in central retinal vein occlusion: a new diagnostic technique? Radiology. 1993;187(3):847-50.
  173. Williamson TH, Strong NP, Sparrow J, Aggarwal RK, Harrad R. Contrast sensitivity and glare in cataract using the Pelli-Robson chart. BrJOphthalmol. 1992;76(12):719-22.
  174. Williamson TH, Baxter G, Paul R, Dutton GN. Colour Doppler ultrasound in the management of a case of cranial arteritis. BrJOphthalmol. 1992;76(11):690-1.
  175. Baxter GM, Williamson TH, McKillop G, Dutton GN. Color Doppler ultrasound of orbital and optic nerve blood flow: effects of posture and timolol 0.5%. Invest OphthalmolVisSci. 1992;33(3):604-10.
  176. Williamson TH, Meyer PA. Branch retinal artery occlusion in toxoplasma retinochoroiditis. BrJOphthalmol. 1991;75(4):253.
  177. Williamson TH, Garner A, Moore AT. Structure of Lisch nodules in neurofibromatosis type 1. Ophthalmic PaediatrGenet. 1991;12(1):11-7.
  178. Williamson TH, Smith FW, Forrester JV. Magnetic resonance imaging of intraocular foreign bodies. BrJOphthalmol. 1989;73(7):555-8.
  179. Williamson TH, Bacon AS, Flanagan DW, Jakeman CM, Jordan K. Combined extracapsular cataract extraction and trabeculectomy using a separated corneal section. Eye. 1989;3 ( Pt 5):547-52.
  180. Kadom AH, Forrester JV, Williamson TH. Comparison of the anti-inflammatory activity and effect on intraocular pressure of fluoromethalone, clobetasone butyrate and betamethasone phosphate eye drops. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 1986;6(3):313-5.
  181. Allen F. BA, Williamson T.H., Mann S. Multi-spot lasers: what consitutes an effective pan retinal photocoagualtion (PRP) and is it time to find a new treatment regime? Ophthalmology and Ophthalmic Surgery. 2020;3:119-28.
  182. Williamson TH. Artificial intelligence in diabetic retinopathy. Eye (Lond). 2020. doi: 10.1038/s41433-020-0855-7.
  183. Patil AD, Ellabban, A.A., Patil, D.P., Yorston, D., Williamson, T.H., Laidlaw, D.A., Vize, C.J., Hingorani, M., and Morris, E.P. Ocular manifestations of pregnancy and labour: from the innocuous to the sight threatening. The Obstetrician and Gynaecologist. 2020:217-26.
  184. Grabowska A, Neffendorf JE, Yorston D, Williamson TH. Urgency of retinal detachment repair: is it time to re-think our priorities? Eye (Lond). 2020. doi: 10.1038/s41433-020-01154-w.
  185. Yorston D, Donachie PHJ, Laidlaw DA, Steel DH, Sparrow JM, Aylward GW, et al. Factors affecting visual recovery after successful repair of macula-off retinal detachments: findings from a large prospective UK cohort study. Eye (Lond). 2020. doi: 10.1038/s41433-020-1021-y.
  186. Steel DH, Donachie PHJ, Laidlaw DA, Williamson TH, Yorston D. Response to ‘Comment on: Factors affecting anatomical and visual outcome after macular hole surgery: findings from a large prospective UK cohort’. Eye (Lond). 2020. doi: 10.1038/s41433-020-1041-7.

Computer Conference Proceedings

  1. R.A. Welikala MMF, J. Dehmeshki, A. Hoppe, V. Tah, S. Mann, T.H. Williamson, S.A. Barman, . Differing Matched Filter Responsivity for the Detection of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference on Signal Processing, Pattern Recognition and Applications, 2013. p. 356-64.
  2. Krit Inthajak CD, Bunyarit Uyyanonvara, Stanislav S. Makhanov, Sarah Barman, TH Williamson, . Variable Size Blob Detection with Feature Stability, . 3rd Biomedical Engineering International Conference on Medical Imaging, Image and Signal Processing. Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan2010. p. 133-4.
  3. Sabate-Cequier A DM, Usher D, Himaga M, Williamson TH, Boyce J. Nussey S, . Accurate registration of paired macular and digital retinal images: a potential aid to diabetic retinopathy screening. Medical Imaging Understanding Analysis2002.
  4. Sabate-Cequier A BJDM, Himaga M, Usher D, Williamson TH,. Nussey S, . Registration of retinal images. Medical Imaging Understanding Analysis2002.
  5. Williamson T.H. GN, Blamires T., Flanagan D.W.. . Visual field loss in diabetics with panretinal photocoagulation with reference to D.V.L.C. recommendations. Vision and Vehicles1989.

Magazine Articles

  1. A Berarducci THW. Sickle cell eye disease: an overview of the vitreoretinal complications and their surgical management. Eye News 2017. p. 27-9.
  2. Chandra A, Williamson, T.H. Management of choroidal haemorrhage. Retina Today2014.
  3. Shunmugan M, Williamson, T.H. . Recent optical coherence imaging of vitreomacular disorders. US Ophthalmic REview2011. p. 17-22.
  4. T.H. W. Surgical management of young diabetics with tractional retinal detachment. . Retina Today2010.
  5. Williamson TH. Complications of vitrectomy for diabetic retinopathy. Retina Today2009.
  6. Williamson TH. Three-step program beneficial for PVR after retinal detachment, partially reattaching the retina and delaying retinectomy minimize the release of cytokines and growth hormones that lead to PVR. Ocular Surgery News Europe/Asia-Pacific Edition (Archive)2009.
  7. Shunmugan M WT. Optical Coherence Tomography. European ophthalmic review2009.
  8. Williamson TH. Sheth Characteristics and Outcomes of Severe Ocular Trauma Eye News2005.
  9. Chignell A.H. HD, Tanner V., Williamson TH. Acute posterior vitreous detachment. . Optomery in Practice2000. p. 97-102.